Supreme Court Limits Scope of Anti-Bribery Law: Snyder v. United States

In a landmark decision, the Supreme Court ruled that a federal anti-bribery law, known as Section 666, does not criminalize state and local officials for accepting gratuities for actions they have already taken. This ruling, which came from the case Snyder v. United States, underscores the differentiation between bribery and gratuities and highlights the federal government’s role versus state and local governance in regulating officials’ conduct.

Justice Brett Kavanaugh, writing for the six-justice majority, detailed six reasons why Section 666 should not apply to past acts, emphasizing the statute’s original intent and its alignment with federal provisions on bribery. Justice Ketanji Brown Jackson, dissenting with Justices Sotomayor and Kagan, argued for a broader interpretation of the statute to cover post-action gratuities, stressing the need to address corruption comprehensively.

Detailed Analysis

Background of the Case James Snyder, the former mayor of Portage, Indiana, was convicted under Section 666 for accepting $13,000 from a truck company that had secured city contracts worth over $1 million. Federal prosecutors viewed this payment as an illegal gratuity, while Snyder claimed it was for consulting services.

The Court’s Majority Opinion Justice Kavanaugh laid out six key reasons for the ruling:

  1. Statutory Text: Section 666’s text is similar to federal bribery statutes but differs from those criminalizing gratuities for past acts.
  2. Legislative Amendments: Changes made to Section 666 in 1986 shifted its language closer to bribery statutes, not gratuities.
  3. Legal Distinctions: Bribery and gratuities are distinct crimes with different legal elements.
  4. Punishment Disparities: Federal laws impose harsher penalties for bribery than for illegal gratuities, which contradicts the government’s interpretation of Section 666.
  5. State and Local Regulation: The ruling respects the autonomy of state and local governments in managing their officials’ conduct.
  6. Legal Clarity: Applying Section 666 to gratuities would create ambiguity and potentially criminalize innocuous actions without clear guidelines.

The Dissenting Opinion Justice Jackson argued that the statute’s text, specifically the term “rewarded,” naturally includes gratuities for past actions. She contended that the law targets corruption without overreaching into minor, non-corrupt gifts, as evidenced by the limitations already within Section 666.


This decision narrows the scope of federal oversight on state and local officials, reinforcing the importance of local governance and regulatory frameworks. It also signals a need for potential legislative updates if Congress seeks to address this gap in anti-corruption measures comprehensively.


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