The civil litigation process in Florida is multifaceted and can involve numerous steps, motions, and procedures. Learn to navigate it.

An Overview of the Civil Litigation Process in Florida

Navigating the civil litigation process in Florida can be complex, but understanding the key stages can help you prepare for what lies ahead. Here, we outline the broad steps involved, from prelitigation demands to the possibility of an appeal.

Prelitigation Demands and Negotiations

Before filing a lawsuit, it’s common for the parties to engage in prelitigation demands and negotiations. This process involves the plaintiff sending a demand letter to the defendant, outlining the grievances and the compensation sought. Negotiations may follow, aiming to resolve the dispute without going to court.

Prelitigation Mediation

Sometimes, the parties may agree to prelitigation mediation. This involves a neutral third party, the mediator, who helps facilitate discussions and negotiations in hopes of reaching a settlement. Mediation can save time and expenses associated with litigation.

Filing a Lawsuit

If negotiations and mediation fail, the plaintiff can file a lawsuit by submitting a complaint to the appropriate court. The complaint must include a statement of the claim and the relief sought. The defendant is then served with a summons and a copy of the complaint, requiring them to respond.

Motions to Dismiss

After receiving the complaint, the defendant may file a motion to dismiss for several reasons described under Florida Rule of Civil Procedure 1.140. This motion argues that the complaint is legally insufficient and should be dismissed. Grounds for dismissal include lack of jurisdiction, failure to state a cause of action, or improper venue.

Discovery and Depositions

If the case proceeds, both parties engage in the discovery process, governed by Florida Rules of Civil Procedure 1.280-1.370. This involves exchanging relevant information, documents, and evidence. Depositions, where witnesses give sworn testimony outside of court, are a key component of discovery.

Motions for Summary Judgment

At any point during or after discovery, a party can file a motion for summary judgment under Florida Rule of Civil Procedure 1.510. This motion argues that there are no genuine disputes of material fact and that the moving party is entitled to judgment as a matter of law. If granted, it can resolve the case without a trial.

Court-Ordered Mediations and Arbitrations

Before trial, the court may order mediation or arbitration in an attempt to settle the dispute. Mediation involves a mediator assisting the parties in negotiating a settlement, while arbitration involves a neutral arbitrator who hears the evidence and makes a binding decision.


If the case is not resolved through mediation or arbitration, it proceeds to trial. Trials can be before a judge (bench trial) or a jury (jury trial). During the trial, both parties present their evidence and arguments. The judge or jury then renders a verdict based on the facts and applicable law.

Possibility of Appeal

After a trial, the losing party has the right to appeal the decision to a higher court. The appeal process involves submitting written briefs and, sometimes, oral arguments to challenge the trial court’s ruling. The appellate court reviews the case for legal errors and can affirm, reverse, or remand the case for further proceedings.


The civil litigation process in Florida is multifaceted and can involve numerous steps, motions, and procedures. This overview provides a simplified outline of the process, but it’s important to note that each case is unique and may involve additional complexities. Consulting with an experienced attorney can provide further guidance and ensure that your rights are protected throughout the litigation process. At The Law Firm of Douglas G. Jackson, we are committed to helping you navigate these legal challenges and achieve the best possible outcome for your case.


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